Course Syllabus

Course Description

BIO 265: Human Anatomy and Physiology II is the second of a two-semester course that prepares students for further study in the health and medical fields. You should have already completed BIO 264: Human Anatomy and Physiology I. Both of these courses have a corresponding lab that is taken separately from the lecture portion of the course. Most students must take BIO 264 and BIO 265 as well as the corresponding lab courses to fulfill prerequisite requirements to apply for specific medical professional programs. This course includes 10 modules. Please note that this course is not acceptable for biology major credit. If you are a biology major, you should probably be in a different course.

Module Structure

Important: This course is structured differently than other online courses at BYU-Idaho. Modules do not correspond with weeks in the semester. Some modules have items that are due over several weeks. Use the I-Learn Calendar to view the due dates. 

Course Outline & Module Objectives

Module 01: The Cardiovascular System

1.1 Anatomy of the Heart 

  • Describe the general anatomy of the heart and the organization of the cardiovascular system.
  • Describe the unique characteristics of cardiac muscle.

1.2 Cardiac Cell Action Potentials 

  • Compare and contrast the action potential waveform of skeletal muscle cells, pacemaker (autorhythmic) cells, and cardiomyocytes.

1.3 Heart Conduction System

  • Describe how an electrical signal is carried through the heart.
  • Describe the process of excitation-contraction coupling.
  • Explain the waves of an EKG.

1.4 The Cardiac Cycle 

  • Be able to sketch and explain the cardiac cycle graph, the relationship between various pressures, volume levels, valves involved, heart sounds and how the EKG relates to contraction during each stage of systole and diastole.
  • Understand how to calculate measurements of cardiac function such as EDV, ESV, Stroke Volume, Cardiac Output, Ejection Fraction and what factors influence these measurements.

1.5 Regulation of Cardiac Function 

  • Explain how the heart is regulated both intrinsically and extrinsically.
  • Understand the relationship between total peripheral resistance (TPR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and what factors influence these measurements.
  • Describe how the baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes work to maintain adequate mean arterial pressure.

Module 02: Blood Regulation and Blood Flow

2.1 Introduction to Blood 

  • Understand the functions and composition of blood.
  • Explain the process of hematopoiesis and the factors influencing the maturation of erythrocytes.
  • Explain the structure and function of hemoglobin as a transporter.
  • Explain how red blood cells are broken down and recycled.
  • Explain the impact of anemia and some of its common causes.
  • Explain the impact and common causes of jaundice.

2.2 Hemostasis 

  • Explain the process of hemostasis and describe how the intrinsic and common pathways work together in coagulation.
  • Describe the mechanisms in place for regulating platelet activation and blood clot formation, and the process of fibrinolysis.

2.3 Blood Typing 

  • Explain how general blood typing is done using the ABO and Rh systems.

2.4 Blood Vessel Structure, Atherosclerosis

  • Recall the structure of blood vessels. List the layers of a blood vessel and the properties of the different types of vessels.
  • Describe the various types of blood vessels that blood flows through as blood travels from the heart to the body and back to the heart.
  • Understand what happens in arthrosclerosis and arteriosclerosis.

2.5 Capillary Exchange 

  • Explain Capillary Exchange and how hydrostatic pressures and osmotic pressured work together to exchange nutrients and fluid in the capillaries.

2.6 Blood Pressure Regulation 

  • Discuss how blood pressure is regulated and the mechanisms that accomplish both short-term and long-term regulation.
  • Describe how shock impacts blood pressure and how it is treated.

Exam 01

  • Covers content from Modules 01 and 02

Module 03: Lymphatics and Immunity

3.1 Overview of the Lymphatic and Non-Specific Innate Response of the Immune System 

  • Describe the general function, structure, and organization of the lymphatic system and its role in immunity.
  • Describe the different types of leukocytes and how they work together to fight infection.
  • Explain in detail the following three methods of defense of the immune system:
    • Physical barriers
    • The non-specific (innate) immune response
    • The specific (adaptive) immune response

3.2  Specific Immune Response, Antibodies, Immunity and Vaccines 

  • Explain in detail the three methods of defense of the immune system: Physical Barriers, Non-Specific (Innate) Immune Response and the Specific (Adaptive) Immune Response.
  • Explain the relationships between the B-Cell, Helper T-Cells, Cytotoxic T-Cells in the specific immune response and how memory cells are made.
  • Describe the structure and function of the 5 immunoglobulin antibodies.
  • Describe what a vaccine is made of and how it can protect an individual from disease.

Module 04: Skin

4.1 Structure and Function of the Integumentary System 

  • Describe the major functions of the integumentary system.
  • Name the types of tissue that make up the skin and list the major layers of the skin and functions of each layer.
  • Describe the various factors that influence skin color.
  • Describe the various factors that influence skin color.

4.2 Hair  

  • Describe the unique characteristics and structure of hair.
  • Explain the factors influencing hair growth and hair loss.

Module 05: Respiratory System

5.1 Respiratory System Structure, Function, and Ventilation 

  • Recall the function and anatomy of the respiratory system.
  • Explain how vocal sound is made.
  • Describe the alveoli and the layers of the respiratory membrane.
  • Understand the role of surfactant in ventilation.

5.2 Respiratory Pressures 

  • Explain how ventilation occurs and how the pressures influence inhalation and exhalation.
  • Discuss the main factors and laws that influence the rate at which gasses will cross the respiratory membrane. 

5.3 Gas Exchange and Transport 

  • Discuss the main factors and laws that influence the rate at which gasses will cross the respiratory membrane.
  • Explain what partial pressure means and how the partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere is calculated at sea level to be about 159 mmHg, and how this relates to the partial pressure of oxygen inside the lungs.
  • Discuss how the partial pressure gradients of O2 and CO2 keep gasses moving in the appropriate directions as blood moves past tissue cells and the lungs.
  • Explain how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood.

5.4 Respiratory Control 

  • Explain respiratory control in the brain and the role of carbon dioxide and oxygen in regulating breathing.
  • Describe how chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma make it difficult to breathe.

Module 06: Bone

6.1 Function and Structure of the Skeletal System 

  • Describe the composition and function of hyaline cartilage. Explain how it grows.
  • Name the regions of bone organization in the body, as well as the chemical composition of bone.
  • Describe the three major bone cells, including their functions.
  • Describe the role of osteoclasts in regulating blood calcium and explain how calcium is regulated.
  • Explain the mechanism and purpose of bone remodeling.

6.2 Formation, Growth, and Bone Repair

  • Describe the two major methods of bone formation in the embryo.
  • Describe the process of bone growth and the factors impacting bone growth.
  • Explain the steps of bone repair after a break.

Exam 02

  • Covers content from Modules 03, 04, 05, and 06

Module 07: Urinary System and Acid-Base

7.1 The Kidney: Function, Anatomy, and the Nephron 

  • Describe the functional anatomy of the Kidney. 

7.2 Filtration, Reabsorption, and Secretion 

  • Describe the process of filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion.
  • Describe the process of how the kidneys nephrons regulated the Glomerular Filtration Rate.

7.3 Physiology of Urine Production

  • Describe how clearance is related to kidney function. 
  • Explain how the kidney concentrates and dilutes urine. 

7.4 Acid/Base Balance 

  • Describe the role of the nephron in acid-base balance.
  • Describe the role of the nephron in acid-base balance.
  • Describe the effects of respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on the body and how they are compensated for.

Module 08: Digestive System

8.1 Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System 

  • Describe the tissue organization and general function of each layer of the alimentary canal.
  • Describe the organization and functional anatomy of the digestive system.

8.2 Digestion 

  • Describe the process of digestion for carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. 

8.3 Regulation of Digestive Secretions 

  • Describe the regulation of acid and digestive enzymes. 

Exam 03

  • Covers content from Modules 07 and 08

Module 09: Endocrine System

9.1 The Endocrine System and Hormones of the Body 

  • List the major endocrine organs; distinguish between endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine hormones.
  • Describe how hormones are classified chemically.

9.2 The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 

  • Describe how the hypothalamic-pituitary axis regulates hormone secretion. 

9.3 Thyroid and Adrenal Glands 

  • Describe the process of thyroid hormone formation and release. 
  • Describe the actions of the hormones produced by the adrenal gland. 

9.4 Pancreas

  • Describe the actions of the pancreatic hormones. 

Module 10: Reproductive System

10.1 Reproductive System Anatomy and Germ Cells 

  • Recall the anatomical structures of female reproductive systems. Be able to map out the path of an unfertilized ovum from the follicle as it exits the body during menstruation.
  • Recall the anatomical structures of male reproductive systems. Be able to map out the path of the sperm from development to where it exits the body during ejaculation.

10.2 The Male Reproductive System 

  • Be sure you can explain the reproductive endocrine axis for the male.
  • Discuss spermatogenesis.

10.3 Female Reproductive System 

  • Discuss female oogonia in the ovary and explain folliculogenesis.
  • Discuss the role of the thecal cell and the granulosa cell for producing estrogen and progesterone before and after ovulation.
  • Describe in detail the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles including the hormonal regulation.
  • Understand the treatment options for infertility and the uses and risk factors of hormonal therapy.

Exam 04

  • Covers content from Modules 09 and 10.

Comprehensive Final Exam

  • Covers content from modules 01 through 08. It is 50 questions in total worth 100 points. 

Required Materials


This course does not require you to purchase a textbook. 

The anatomy and physiology professors and instructors of BYUI understand the financial burdens that a student can face and want to do their part to help out. This course, therefore, is a compilation of readings, videos, weblinks, tutorials, and other such digital media to help through this course. The readings and associated material are designed so that a student who is adequately prepared can expect to spend nine to 12 hours studying per week and be very successful in the course.

However, students must realize and understand that the materials in this course are not perfect (although they are always getting better) and that some students may be coming into the course less prepared than others. (For example, some students may be returning to school after many years of not attending school and other students may be coming in with very little experience in biology.) For students who feel unprepared, the learning experience may be much more complete if the student acquires a supplementary textbook or at least develops very good research skills outside of the materials we provide.

As with any college-level course, students should expect to research beyond the materials in this class to help themselves more fully understand concepts. If a student decides to obtain a textbook to help study concepts, then it does not matter which textbook it is as long as it is a two-semester A&P course textbook. Even the edition of the textbook that you get does not matter very much in most cases. For this reason, students can often find a very good reference textbook online for quite cheap. Below are some textbooks that previous students found helpful.

  • Anatomy and Physiology by Seeley, Stephens, and Tate (any edition, but newer is better)
  • Seeley's Anatomy & Physiology by Vanputte Regan and Russo (any edition)
  • Human Anatomy & Physiology by Elaine N. Marieb and Katja Hoehn (any edition, but newer is better)
  • Other textbooks are fine as well, just look for an Anatomy and Physiology textbook that is used for a two-semester general A&P course.
  • A free online textbook to consider is called OpenStax.

For students who choose not to purchase or use an additional textbook but want to expound their knowledge, it is recommended to learn quickly how to research on the internet. Students who are willing to spend the time and effort to do good internet research tend to learn the material very well.

As the course materials are continually improved and updated, student input is welcome. If a student wants to make a suggestion that would improve the materials or the course, they are welcome to send ideas to the instructor in an email. Please avoid the temptation to complain about things that are not likely to change (such as the difficulty of the course or the exams, the amount of material to learn, etc.). We know the course is difficult. It has been a difficult course for many decades. It is necessary because the A&P courses provide the science foundation for health care professions.

Access to a Computer with Internet

It is your responsibility to make arrangements to have access to a computer connected to the internet. (The higher speed you have for your internet access, the easier the course will be for you to complete.)

Access to Web Camera, Microphone & Headphones

An important course activity are the Teaching Sheets. You will be expected to attend teaching sessions with a TA via Zoom. In order to get the most out of these sessions, you will need access to a web camera and microphone. 

Exams must be taken on a computer with a webcam and microphone. (See the Exams section below.) To improve the experience while attending study sessions, you need a web camera, microphone, and headphones to reduce audio feedback. 

Course Activities

Teaching Sheets 

One of the most significant activities in the course is Teaching Sheets. Each unit has a corresponding set of principles and ideas that are the most crucial, and oftentimes, most difficulty to understand. In order to fully master those principles, you are expected to teach the material from the Teaching Sheet to five (5) different people people; one of those people being a TA or Instructor. You will not be assessed on the quality of how you teach the material (though it is important that you teach correct principles) but simply on how many times you taught it to others. One of the most powerful ways to learn something is to teach it. Out of all the different activities to prepare for exams, we have found that Teaching Sheets has the most impact. 

Perusall  Discussions (Optional)

Each week of study has a corresponding Perusall Discussion. Perusall is a social annotation tool that will allow you to complete the section readings with your peers and ask questions directly to your instructor or TA. Each of these discussions are optional but highly recommended, especially for those who cannot make a study session with a TA or instructor. 

Study Guides

You are provided with a study guide for each section of the textbook. Although not required to fill-out or turn-in, you are strongly encouraged to use them. You are strongly recommended to work with a partner or group on each study guide. You are also encouraged to pose questions in the Perusall Discussions as needed. 


You complete a quiz for each textbook section. There are 20 questions in each quiz. Quizzes contribute 70 total points to your final grade. You have unlimited attempts on each quiz. The higher score earned before the due date is retained. After the due date, your score cannot change (even if you answer more questions correctly). The quiz will close on the same day as the corresponding unit exam.

Please keep taking the quizzes (even after the due date) to study and review. Explain why each answer option is correct or incorrect. You are strongly encouraged to work with a partner or group and to pose questions to each other. 

During quizzes you may use any resource such as textbook, study guide, online searches, conversations with classmates in study groups or via the Perusall Discussions, etc.. However, it is a violation of university policy and copyright law to post quiz questions on a website or to pass quiz answers to others, including future students. 


Four exams are administered in the course:

  • Four proctored exams (each worth 100 points)
  • One proctored comprehensive final (100 points)


You are required to take all BIO 265 exams in I-Learn using a remote proctoring service called Proctorio. You do not need to find your own proctor. Proctorio requires a webcam, microphone and software plug-in. During Module 01, you download the required plug-in.

Please contact your instructor with any questions or concerns about the exams.


Point Structure

There are 645 points possible in this course. The course grade will be determined by the following:

  • Ice Breaker Discussion (2 points)
  • Research Consent Quiz (1 point)
  • Syllabus Quiz (1 point)
  • Practice Proctored Exam (1 point)
  • Teaching Assignments (70 points)
  • Quizzes (70 points)
  • Four proctored exams (400 points)
  • One proctored comprehensive final (100 points)

You are responsible for your learning, so be engaged and be involved in completing all the preparatory work so you will perform well on the exams.

Grading Scale

Letter Grade Percentage Range
A 93%100%
A- 90%92.9%
B+ 87%89.9%
B 83%86.9%
B- 80%82.9%
C+ 77%79.9%
C 73%76.9%
C- 70%72.9%
D+ 67%69.9%
D 63%66.9%
D- 60%62.9%
F Less than 60%

Extra Credit

Your instructor may allow 25 points of extra credit per student during the semester. The manner in which you may earn extra credit and the points associated with the activities is at your instructor's discretion. Please communicate with your instructor to discover more details about these possible points.

Course Policies

You should read the following course policies and make sure that you understand what these policies mean to you regarding your interactions with the instructor and other students in this course. If you have questions about any of these policies, you should contact your instructor immediately.

Time Requirement

On average, you should plan to spend 912 hours per week to study and complete the assigned activities. This is the amount of time that you should expect to spend if you want to get a passing grade (C). If you want a higher grade, you may need to put in more study time. In order to keep up with the assignments and learn the most from this class, you should make sure you schedule regular time each day to study for this class. 

Late Policy

All work (study guides, quizzes, exams) should be submitted by the due date. Students should not ask instructors to extend deadlines or allow makeups. However, it is understood that emergencies happen. It is the responsibility of the student to notify the instructor of such emergencies. 

Personal Honor

In this class, our interactions with each other should be guided at all times by the following principles of personal honor.

Principles of Personal Honor: True at all Times

  • Personal honor is integrity in fulfilling commitments, responsibilities, and covenants.
  • Personal honor begins with willing obedience and is fully developed when we consistently govern ourselves by true principles.
  • Personal honor increases spiritual strength through the ministry of the Holy Ghost.
  • Personal honor is central to every aspect of our lives, including the BYU-Idaho experience.
  • Personal honor brings us joy and happiness; deepens our desire to love, serve, and lift others; and ultimately helps us to become more like the Savior.

You should make sure that you understand the above principles of personal honor. It is important for all class members to strive to follow the above principles in our associations with one another.

If you have any questions about how Personal Honor is related to academic honesty or the university's Dress and Grooming Standards, you may visit the University Standards web page for more information.

University Policies

Students with Disabilities

Brigham Young University-Idaho is committed to providing a working and learning atmosphere that accommodates qualified persons with disabilities. If you have a disability and require accommodations, please contact the Disability Services Office at (208) 496-9210 or visit their website and follow the Steps for Receiving Accommodations. Reasonable academic accommodations are reviewed for all students who have qualified documented disabilities. Services are coordinated with students and instructors by the Disability Services Office.

This course uses complex human anatomy and physiology images that students are required to visually identify, so detailed alt text cannot be provided. If you have a disability that prevents you from accessing these images, please contact Disability Services.

This course may require synchronous meetings. If you are currently registered with the Disability Services Office and need an interpreter or transcriber for these meetings, please contact the deaf and hard of hearing coordinator.

Other University Policies

Student Honor and Other Policies

Please read through the document called University Policies. It gives important information about the following topics:

  • Student Honor
    • Academic Honesty
    • Student Conduct
      • Sexual Harassment
  • Student with Disabilities
  • Complaints and Grievances
  • Copyright Notice

Go to the Student Resources module to review further resources and information.

Course Summary:

Date Details Due